The Keio Journal of Medicine

Persistent Eosinophilic Infiltration of the Myocardium in a Child in Complete Remission of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Eosinophilia. Potential Role in Late Cardiac Disease?
Atsutoshi Tsuji, Michiko Sasaki, Toru Ishii, Seiji Sato, Hideaki Kanki,
Satoru Suzuki, Shigeyuki Takeuchi and Toyoki Fukuda

This report describes the long-term (23 years) follow-up of a pediatric patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and eosinophilia who underwent multiple valve replacements. An 8-year-old boy with this complex disease was admitted in January 1984 and treated with 6-week course of vincristine, L-asparaginase, and prednisolone, which induced complete remission. He developed atrioventricular valvular insufficiency and infectious endocarditis at 13.5 and 17.3 years of ages, respectively, with progressive development of congestive heart failure. At 18.6 years of age, he underwent prosthetic valve replacement of both atrioventricular valves; the mitral valve was replaced with a mechanical prosthetic valve and tricuspid valve with a bioprosthetic valve. Histopathological examination of the ventricular endomyocardium showed extensive fibrous degeneration and persistent infiltration of eosinophils and lymphocytes. The right-side prosthesis was replaced twice, at 22.4 and 29 years of ages, due to degeneration of bioleaflets and thrombosis of the mechanical valve, respectively. Although he tolerated all surgical procedures, he developed liver cancer at 31 years of age and died. Autopsy could not be performed. The present study indicates that a subset of patients in complete remission of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and eosinophilia can show persistent myocardial eosinophilic infiltration and are at risk of late cardiac disease.